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Mesaj  chatLakqitaRist Bir Cuma Mayıs 09, 2008 10:04 am

Necessity: gereklilik, zorunluluk
Must/have to

• I must pass the university exam. I have no other choice. If I can’ t pass it, I won’ t get a good career and I’ ll be unhappy.
• I have to pass the university exam. My parents have spent so much Money on me. If not, I’ ll make them unhappy.

* You musn’ t cross the street when the lights are red.

Lack of necessity: gereksizlik (gerek yok)

Don’ t/doesn’ t have to + V1
Don’ t/doesn’ t need to + V1
Needn’ t + V1

• We don’ t need to hurry. We have plenty of time.
• Tomorrow is a holiday. We don’ t have to go to class.

Lack of necessity in the past

Didn’ t have to/didn’ t need to: gerek yoktu, gerek kalmadı

• I didn’ t have to wait long for friends. They came only ten minutes later.

Needn’ t have + V3: gerekmediği halde yaptım

• You needn’ t have washed the dishes by hand. I was going to put them in the dishwasher.

Advisability: öğüt

Should/ought to/had better

Yapmam gerekir/yapsam iyi olur, yapmasam kötü şeyler olabilir

• You should read a lot of books to improve your English.
• We had better hurry, or we will miss the bus.
• I should study for my geography exam, but I don’ t feel like studying tonight. I think, I’ ll study for it tomorrow.
• I had better study for my exam tonight. If not, I’ ll fail.

Shouldn’ t/Ought not to: yapılmaması gerekir had better not: yapmasan iyi olur

Should be doing/Ought to be doing: şu anda………….. yapıyor olmam gerekirdi.

• Why is he sleeping now? He should be studying for his exam.
• I’ m watching TV with you now, but in fact, I ought to be studying in my room.

Should have done/ought to have done: yapmam gerekirdi ama yapmadım

• I should have set my alarm clock. I over slept and missed the bus.
• He should have studied harder to pass his exam. He failed.

Should have been doing/ought to have been doing: yapıyor olmalıydılar

• While I was going to home yesterday, I saw some chidren. They were playing in the street. They shouldn’ t have been playing there. They should have been playing in the playground.

Be to/be supposed to= be due to: bir tarifeye göre, programa göre olması gereken olaylar

Be to= must
• The film is to start at nine o’ clock.
• You are supposed to be on time for class. If you are late the teacher gets angry.
• I’ m to go to work early tomorrow. My boss ordered me to go in early.

Be supposed to: was/were supposed to
Was/were supposed to= should have done
Was/were going to = should have done

*Bir tarifeye, bir plana göre yapmamız gerekirdi.

• I was supposed to go to work early yesterday, but I overslept, so my boss got angry with me.

Ability: yetenek (can, be able to)

Was/were able to V1: geçmişte zor bir durumun üstesinden gelmek.
• The maths exam was very difficult yesterday, but I was able to get a high grade.

Suggestion: tavsiye, öneri (may, might (as well)

If you don’ t have any other plans, we may invite some friends fort he weekend. Since we can’ t afford to go to the cinema, we might as well hire a video and watch it at home.

Could (past ability)

When I was younger, I could run fast.
(probably means: I used to be able to run fast, but now I can’ t run fast.)

I want to take my son somewhere tomorrow, but I can’ t think of any where interesting. Got any idea?
* Well, you could take him to the theatre or cinema, or you could go to a park.

Could have done: geçmişte bir şeyi yapabilirdin ama yapmadın (Allah’ tan yapmadın)
• You were driving so fast. You could have had an accident.
• He could have borrowed some Money from his friends, but he didn’ t.

couldn’ t have done: isteseydi de yapamazdı
* I couldn’ t have visited my friend even if I had wanted. Because he was in İzmir.

Expressing Degrees of Certainty: tahminde bulunma

He is ill. (% 100)
He must be ill. (% 95 emin olmak)
He may/might/could be ill. (% 50 emin olabilir)
He isn’ t in his room. ( % 100)
He can’ t/couldn’ t be in his room. (% 99)
He musn’ t be in his room. (% 95)
He may/might not be in his room. (% 50 olmayabilir)

Present progressive form (Modal + be doing)

Must be doing: yapıyor olmalı
May/might/could be doing: yapıyor olabilir

can’ t/couldn’ t be doing: yapıyor olamaz

musn’ t be doing: yapmıyor olmalı
may/might not be doing: yapmıyor olabilir.

• Do you hear some noise from the baby’ s room. Yes, I do! She musn’ t be sleeping.

• Don’ t make so much noise. Your brother is studying. No, he can’ t be studying. I saw him in the street.

Past time

Must have done: -mış olmalı
May/might have done: -mış olabilir

can’ t/ couldn’ t have done: -mış olamaz
must not have done: -mamış olmalı
May not/might not have done: -mamış olabilir
• You can’ t have seen him there. He has been in Ankara for two weeks.
• She couldn’ t pass her exams. She musn’ t have studied hard enough.

Past progressive

Must heve been Ving: herhalde yapıyordu
Might/may/could have been Ving: beklide yapıyordu
Can’ t have been Ving: yapıyor olması imkansız

• He can’ t have been driving very fast at the time of the accident. He doesn’ t like speeding.

Would have done: ederdi veya edecekti


Would rather/woluld sooner V1………than: tercih ederim
• I woluld rather read something than watch TV.
• I’ d sooner drink coffee than tea.

Would rather/would sooner have V3……….than: geçmişte yapmayı tercih ederdim
• I’ d rather have stayed at home than gone to the cinema last night.

özne ile eylemi yapacak kişi farklıysa
Would rather + Özne+ past simple

• She wants to be a nurse, but I’ d rather she became a teacher.

***Would have V3: -ecekti, -acaktı

Used to/ would
1 2

1) geçmişte çok yapıp artık yapmamak ya da seyrek yapmak.

Used to + eylem/ olgu bildiren fiiller.
• I used to go to the cinema very often when I was at university.

2) would + eylem

I would fly kites in my childhood.

• I…………… very shy when I was a child.

a) would b) used to c) needn’ t d) musn’ t

Would ve used to aynı sorunun şıklarında beraber bulunuyorsa used to tercih edilir.

why don’ t you + V1
Do you prefer + Ving
Would you like + to V1
Do you mind if I + herhangi bir tens

***Be, know, understand olgu bildiren fiiller ve used to ile kullanılır.
May I: -e bilir miyim
Shall I, Shall be: yapalım mı
Will you: birinden kendiniz için bir iyilik istemek


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Geri: İnqilizce----MODALS

Mesaj  chatLakqitaRist Bir Cuma Mayıs 09, 2008 2:20 pm

Umarım işinze yaRaR........


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